Dette sier ekspertene - risikoen ved animalske produkter

EU FRÅRÅDER Å SPISE BEARBEIDET KJØTT

Avoid processed meat; limit red meat and foods high in salt.

Kilde: EU´s 12 råd for kreftforebygging, råd 5


American Institute for Cancer Research om bearbeidet kjøtt og kolerektal kreft og hjertesykdom

The latest analysis of the global research found that eating even small amounts of cold cuts or other processed meats on a regular basis increases the risk of colorectal cancer.

The report by AICR/WCRF also found that eating high amounts of red meat – over 18 ounces a week – linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer.

In addition to its link to colorectal cancer, processed meat may also increase risk of heart disease.

Kilde: American Institute for Cancer Research, FAQ: Processed Meat and Cancer.


American Institute for Cancer Research anbefaler å unngå bearbeidet kjøtt

Research suggests that regularly eating even small amounts of cold cuts, bacon, sausage and hot dogs increase colorectal cancer risk, which is why AICR recommends avoiding these foods, except for special occasions.

The risk continues to rise as processed meat consumption increases. Studies show that compared to eating no processed meat, eating 3.5 ounces every day – a large hot dog – increases colorectal cancer risk by 36%.

Kilde: American Institute for Cancer Research, FAQ: Processed Meat and Cancer.

 

Nordisk ministerråd om inntak av bearbeidet kjøtt, og kolorektal kreft, diabetes, overvekt og koronar hjertesykdom

There is strong epidemiological evidence that high consumption of processed meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer, type-2 diabetes, obesity, and coronary heart disease. Similar, but weaker, associations have been observed for red meat. Replacing processed and red meat with vegetarian alternatives (such as pulses), fish, or poultry reduces the risk.

Kilde: Nordisk ministerråd, 2012. Nye nordiske næringsstoffsanbefalinger. Part 1, Summary, principles and use, 5th edition.

 

Kunnskapsoppsummering om inntak av rødt og bearbeidet kjøtt, og kolorektal- endetarm- og tykktarmskreft

High intake of red and processed meat is associated with significant increased risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancers. The overall evidence of prospective studies supports limiting red and processed meat consumption as one of the dietary recommendations for the prevention of colorectal cancer.» «The current evidence from prospective studies supports limiting the amount of red and processed meat in the high consumers for colorectal cancer prevention.

Kilde: Doris S. M. Chan, Rosa Lau, Dagfinn Aune, Rui Vieira, Darren C. Greenwood, Ellen Kampman, and Teresa Norat: Red and Processed Meat and Colorectal Cancer Incidence: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.


Kunnskapsoppsummering om inntak av rødt og bearbeidet kjøtt, og kolorektal adenom (et forstadie til kreft i tykktarm og endetarm)

These results indicate an elevated risk of colorectal adenomas with intake of red and processed meat, but further prospective studies are warranted.

Kilde: Aune D, Chan DS, Vieira AR, Navarro Rosenblatt DA, Vieira R, Greenwood DC, Kampman E, Norat T.: Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Apr;24(4):611-27. doi: 10.1007/s10552-012-0139-z. Epub 2013 Feb 5.


Meta-analyser om inntak av rødt og bearbeidet kjøtt, og RISIKO FOR SLAg

Five large independent prospective cohort studies were identified. These studies contained a total of 2 39 251 subjects and 9593 stroke events. (…) In the dose-response analysis, the risk of stroke increased significantly by 10% and 13% for each 100 g per day increment in total and red meat consumption, respectively, and by 11% for each 50 g per day increment in processed meat consumption. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat increase risk of stroke, in particular, ischemic stroke.

Kilde: Chen GC, Lv DB, Pang Z, Liu QF. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jan;67(1):91-5. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.180. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Results from this meta-analysis indicate that consumption of fresh red meat and processed red meat as well as total red meat is associated with increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke, but not hemorrhagic stroke.

Kilde: Kaluza J, Wolk A, Larsson SC. Red meat consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Stroke. 2012 Oct;43(10):2556-60. Epub 2012 Jul 31.

 

Meta-analyser om inntak av kjøtt, og risiko for diabetes

For T2DM, we performed a new meta-analysis including publications up to October 2012. For T1DM, only a few studies have reported increased risks for meat consumers or for high intake of saturated fatty acids and nitrates and nitrites. For T2DM, CHD, and stroke, the evidence is strongest. Per 100 g of total meat, the pooled relative risk (RR) for T2DM is 1.15 (95 % CI 1.07-1.24), for (unprocessed) red meat 1.13 (95 % CI 1.03-1.23), and for poultry 1.04 (95 % CI 0.99-1.33); per 50 g of processed meat, the pooled RR is 1.32 (95 % CI 1.19-1.48). Hence, the strongest association regarding T2DM is observed for processed (red) meat.

Kilde: Feskens EJ, Sluik D, van Woudenbergh GJ: Meat consumption, diabetes, and its complications. Curr Diab Rep. 2013 Apr;13(2):298-306. doi: 10.1007/s11892-013-0365-0

The estimated summary RR and 95% confidence interval of type 2 diabetes comparing high vs low intake was 1.17 (95% CI 0.92-1.48) for total meat, 1.21 (95% CI 1.07-1.38) for red meat and 1.41 (95% CI 1.25-1.60) for processed meat.

Kilde: Aune, D., Ursin, G., og Veierod, M. B. Meat consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Diabetologia. 2009 Nov;52(11):2277-87. doi: 10.1007/s00125-009-1481-x. Epub 2009 Aug 7.

 

Meta-analyse om inntak av rødt og bearbeidet kjøtt, og risikoen for iskemisk hjertesykdom og diabetes type 2

The overall findings suggest that neither unprocessed red nor processed meat consumption is beneficial for cardiometabolic health, and that clinical and public health guidance should especially prioritize reducing processed meat consumption.

Kilde: Micha R, Michas G, Mozaffarian D. Unprocessed red and processed meats and risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes–an updated review of the evidence.  Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2012 Dec;14(6):515-24. doi: 10.1007/s11883-012-0282-8. 


Helsedirektoratet om transfett i norsk mat

De største bidragsyterne til transfettsyrer var:

- meieriprodukter (50 prosent)
- kjøtt (19 prosent)
- gjærbakst og kaker (8 prosent) og
- brødvarer (7 prosent)
- Matvarer som inneholdt delvis herdet fett bidro til sammen med omtrent 30 prosent av transfettsyreinntaket.

Kilde: Helsedirektoratet, Mindre transfett i norsk mat.


Helsedirektoratet om kjøtt, melk, og mettet fett og transfett

Over halvparten av de mettede fettsyrene kommer fra meieri- og kjøttprodukter. De bidrar også med mesteparten av transfettsyrene.
Både mettede fettsyrer og transfettsyrer har ugunstige effekter på blodlipidene.
Det er sannsynlig at inntak av transfettsyrer kan øke risikoen for metabolsk syndrom og type 2-diabetes

Kilde: Helsedirektoratet, Fett.


Nasjonalt råd for ernæring om transfett, hjertesykdom, metabolsk syndrom og diabetes type 2

Et høyt inntak av transfettsyrer øker risiko for koronar hjertesykdom, død av koronar
hjertesykdom, plutselig hjertedød, komponenter av metabolsk syndrom og type 2-diabetes.

Kilde: Nasjonalt råd for ernæring, Kostråd for å fremme folkehelsen og forebygge kroniske sykdommer. 2011. Side 106.

 

Fagartikler om animalsk protein, melk, og fedme

Ett högt intag av animalieproteiner, framför allt från mjölkprodukter, under de första levnadsåren kan bidra till ökad tillväxt och högre BMI i barndomen samt är relaterat till tidigare pubertet och ökad risk för övervikt och fetma senare i livet...

Kilde: Sara Ask og Åsa Strindlund, Läkartidningen 11/2014: Vegetarisk mat är bra – även för små barn.

A higher animal, especially dairy, protein intake at 12 mo may be associated with an unfavorable body composition at 7 y. The age of 5-6 y might represent another critical period of protein intake for later obesity risk.

Kilde: Günther AL, Remer T, Kroke A, et al. Early protein intake and later obesity risk: which protein sources at which time points throughout infancy and childhood are important for body mass index and body fat percentage at 7 y of age? Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1765-72. 


Nasjonalt råd for ernæring om egg og kolesterol

Norske helsemyndigheter har ikke gitt noen tallfestede anbefalinger om forbruk av egg i forhold til forebygging av sykdommer. Man har imidlertid uttalt at fordi egg har et høyt innhold av kolesterol, er det ønskelig at forbruket ikke stiger.

Kilde: Nasjonalt råd for ernæring, Kostråd for å fremme folkehelsen og forebygge kroniske sykdommer. 2011. Kap. 10. 


Kunnskapsoppsummering om egg og diabetes type 2

However, egg consumption may be associated with an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes among the general population and CVD comorbidity among diabetic patients.

Kilde: Shin JY, Xun P, Nakamura Y, He K.: Egg consumption in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jul;98(1):146-59. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.051318. Epub 2013 May 15.